Tuesday, 6 April 2010

Gold Stands Its Ground

Gold prices continue to climb and John Licata, chief commodity strategist at Blue Phoenix Inc., says he sees reason to be optimistic about gold's future. In this exclusive interview with The Gold Report, John says that as inflationary pressures present themselves, gold prices will continue their upward move. He also sees silver, platinum and palladium as interesting plays for investors.

U.S. Debt Crisis Startling Facts

FACT #1: The official national debt now stands at $12.68 trillion — an amount equal to about 88.5% of all the goods and services our economy produces in an entire year.


General Election: the only thing you won't hear in the next 30 days is the truth

At times such as this I am reminded of some words from Cardinal Newman: "We now have passed the Gate, and are within the House of Judgment." Yet one cannot make a sensible judgment without good information: and election campaigns are about assertion and not fact. Much of what you encounter in the next 30 days will be propaganda, and should be treated accordingly. Your intelligence will be insulted in a most insolent fashion. The truth will be kept from you on every possible occasion. Artifice will entirely overpower substance. No wonder so many of us long for May 7.

More than a third of graduates are left without jobs after university

Over a third of graduates claimed jobseeker's allowance in the past year because of tough employment conditions, according to new figures.

A survey of 500 recent graduates found that only 6 per cent had found a graduate job, with two-thirds taking work just to pay bills.

New tax year = more New Labour tax rises (06Apr10)

liarpoliticians — 06 April 2010 — Another tax year starts, and with it brings yet more tax rises to buy off New Labour's client state voters.

Recorded from BBC Breakfast, 06 April 2010.

Attack Video Reveals Why Pentagon Wanted To “Destroy” Wikileaks
Aggressive surveillance of whistleblowers prior to release of damning footage

Covering Up Civilian Deaths
The recent news brought reports of two incidents in two countries where US troops killed civilians and then lied to cover up the evidence. These are but the latest of a steady stream of lies from military and Pentagon sources about the killing of civilians.

Welcome to Obama's War
So finally the truth comes out...sort of.

After initially claiming that two pregnant women and a teenage girl killed in a US Special Forces raid on an Afghan home in Khataba in February had been discovered bound and slain by the Americans, the US military has admitted that they were actually shot and killed by those US troops--who then tried to cover up their “mistake” by carving the bullets out of the bodies with knives, removing other incriminating bullets from the compound’s walls, and then washing away the bloody evidence with alcohol.

Targeting Journalists in Iraq is Pentagon Policy
The Baghdad snuff video released by WikiLeaks has yet to receive much corporate media play. MSNBC, however, covered the video. In a discussion of the video, Brett McGurk of the Council on Foreign Relations and an NSC member for Bush and Obama, defended the mass murder episode. McGurk said the soldiers fired on journalists because they thought they saw an RPG launcher.

European Parliament: question on aircraft condensation trails which no longer only contain water
Subject: aircraft condensation trails which no longer only contain water but cause persistent milky veils, possibly due to the presence of barium, aluminium and iron

Is the U.S. on its way toward a Debt Disaster?
More than likely, and this will set the stage for the total demise of the dollar, which will usher in a world currency to replace the long-standing reserve currency status the U.S. has held. No matter how the Fed and Wall Street manipulate the markets with 'slight of hand' collaboration, backed by the approval of our current administration in order to mesmorize the American people into believing the economy is recovering - our AAA status will be downgraded, and along with it our way of life as a once prosperous nation!

Industries brace for peak water as peak oil hits
As though businesses didn't have enough on their plates dealing with peak oil in their strategic planning, production practices, and business models, now researchers from GlobeScan, after conducting a survey of 1,200 sustainability experts, have concluded that peak water is upon us and will worsen over the coming decade making every production process employed in creating the amenties of modern life more expensive

Organic Farmers Report Increasing GMO Contamination with Corn
A group of Midwest organic farmers is reporting increasingly higher levels of GMO contamination of organic corn, which is jeopardizing their ability to sell to organic grain buyers.

A spokesman for the group, which wishes to remain unidentified to protect their organic markets, says, "We're doing more testing and seeing increased low levels of GMO contamination."

Draconian' digital bill can cut off Internet in fight for copyright

Britain is hoping to put itself at the forefront of the fight against internet piracy. The Digital Economy Bill, which will be debated in parliament later on Tuesday, will give authorities the power to block pirate websites and cut people off from the Internet for file sharing. But protesters claim the measures are too extreme and threaten the very future of the web

UK MP: Web control bill a sledgehammer to crack small nut

British Labour MP Austin Mitchell in Westminster speaks out on the Digital Economy Bill, which could give authorities the power to block pirate websites and cut people off from the Internet for file sharing.

Pensioners could be forced to show ID for bus travel
Pensioners could be forced to carry identity cards to qualify for free bus travel, a Government minister has said

(Papiere bitten!)

Airline passenger conversations to be monitored under EU project
Airline passengers could have their conversations and movements monitored under a European Union project aimed at tackling terrorism.

Collateral Pentagon
"We've shot an amazing number of people and killed a number and, to my knowledge, none has proven to have been a real threat to the force."

That was General Stanley McChrystal, supreme commander of United States forces in Afghanistan, late last month - during one of the virtual "town hall" meetings held with US troops every two weeks, as reported in the New York Times.

McChrystal added, "To my knowledge, in the nine-plus months I've been here, not a single case where we have engaged in an escalation of force incident and hurt someone has it turned out that the vehicle had a suicide bomb or weapons in it and, in many cases, had families in it."

Obama & Co. Want National Biometric ID
A bipartisan group of U.S. Senators is teaming up with the Obama administration to legalize illegal immigrants and require biometric national ID cards for every American worker, prompting a swift and bipartisan backlash across the nation.

The proposal would unconstitutionally force nearly all Americans to obtain the new “tamper proof” Social Security cards while purporting to require that all employers purchase new $800 ID scanners. It would also provide a “path to citizenship” for the estimated 12 million to 20 million illegal immigrants currently living in America.

Motorists leaving cars at home as petrol prices hit a new record
Motorists are cutting back on their car use as petrol prices hit a new record, according to the AA.

Come To Jesus Part Deux
The reason we have not seen an all-on collapse - yet - is that the government has stepped in and has borrowed and spent a literal $3 trillion over the last two years for the purpose of hiding the insolvency of virtually every bank and a good number of citizens in this nation, along with virtually every pension plan, annuity and other "defined benefit" plan and institution. They also changed the rules of the game regarding asset valuations - that is, they cheated.

This gambit has produced a veneer of recovery.

What does it mean to be Middle Class in 2010? – No College Degree, Massive Amounts of Debt, One Health Crisis from Bankruptcy, and Beholden to the Banking Elite.
Being middle class today does not carry the financial security that it once carried in the 1950s and 1960s. Interestingly enough, many Americans at that time did not own stocks yet somehow they managed well because they had access to affordable housing without toxic mortgages and many had the ability to work with one company and have some kind of security from their company. It was a mutual relationship as even Henry Ford shook the auto manufacturing world by upping wages for his workers. Yet today, we are being fed distorted information from Wall Street that we need to have this system where workers are disposable entities only to increase the profits of the corporate class. If people are hurting so much why are we paying billions in bonuses to a small group of people that really haven’t helped the country? In fact, many of these are directly responsible for our current economic problems. At the root, this has been the cancer that has eaten away at what it means to be middle class. Social government welfare for Wall Street and Darwinian capitalism for the rest of us.

The Micro Chipping of Americans?
Relevant clauses of the House and Senate Health Bills

"The Secretary shall establish a national medical device registry (in this subsection referred to as the registry, to facilitate analysis of postmarket safety and outcomes data on each device that; (A) is or has been used in or on a patient; (B) is a class III device; or a class II device that is implantable."

In real world speak, according to this report, this new law, when fully implemented, provides the framework for making the United States the first Nation in the World to require each and every one of its citizens to have implanted in them a radio-frequency identification (RFID) microchip for the purpose of controlling who is, or isn't, allowed medical care in their country.

Tensions Mount Between Washington and its Puppet in Kabul
Thursday’s warning by Afghan President Hamid Karzai that US and other NATO troops could be regarded as “invaders” in his country provided a rare glimpse into the political realities in Afghanistan—and called forth a furious reaction from the Obama administration and the American media.

Karzai denounced those in the Washington and the Western media who have criticized the corruption and incompetence of his regime, complaining, “They wanted to have a puppet government. They wanted a servant government.”

ABC escalates Iran war propaganda: echoes unlikely CIA claim of “defected” Iranian scientist
ABC News reported as fact a CIA claim from unnamed US “officials” that a young Iranian nuclear scientist reported as abducted by his wife last year had voluntarily abandoned his family in Iran to allegedly defect to the United States. ABC doesn’t question the CIA’s truthfulness of such a report or the legality for holding Shahram Amiri

General Election 2010: Gordon Brown's loose relationship with the truth
In his Downing Street statement this morning Gordon Brown said that one of the values he had learned during his upbringing in his “ordinary middle class home” was “telling the truth”. He did not learn it terribly well. His period as Chancellor was notorious for his manipulation of statistics – double counting and treble counting became routine. Since becoming Prime Minister, he has found it harder to get away with such slippery behaviour. Last month he was forced to issue a humiliating public apology for misleading the Chilcot Inquiry with his false claim (and he must have known it was false) that he had increased spending on the armed forces every year he was in the Treasury. And only last week he was rebuked by Sir Michael Scholar of the UK Statistics Authority for playing fast and loose with immigration figures. The PM used two sets of “not comparable” figures to back his assertion that immigration was falling; it meant the number of new arrivals was under-counted by 30,000. There was a time when misleading Parliament in this way was regarded as a heinous offence. No more. In his book Servants of the People, Andrew Rawnsley recounts an explosion from the then Chancellor after he had been challenged during a radio interview about what he knew of Bernie Ecclestone’s £1 million donation to the Labour Party. He knew a lot, but said he didn’t. According to Rawnsley, a highly agitated Brown afterwards yelled at aides: “I lied. If this gets out, I’ll be destroyed.” If lying upsets him so much, why does he persist in doing it?

ENOUGH is enough.

Seven in 10 Brits now think we are taking in far too many immigrants.

Unemployment fears rise as job demand drops
Demand for new staff fell last month bringing an end to a period of slow growth and fuelling fears of another possible rise in unemployment.

Statistics from recruiter Reed.co.uk's job index showed a drop from 105 to 102 in March amid "mixed signals".

They want the Government to curb our shambolic open-door policy, according to Migrationwatch.

£1,400 a year added to mortgages
The average annual UK mortgage bill could go up by £700 - £1,400 if the Government does not reduce the amount it plans to borrow, think tank Policy Exchange has warned in its latest report ‘The Cost of Inaction'...

The UK currently has a budget deficit of nearly 12% of GDP. When deficits are very high, that adds a risk premium to interest rates, because of fears about inflation or default.

War on Terra could lead to WW3
Bob Chapman, the man who predicted 9/11, Iraq War, etc.... says :

Nuclear Terrorist attack on Major US city to Blame Iran could Start World War III which is very near and could be initiated with an Israeli staged nuclear attack on a major US city.

TAXPAYERS are facing a £1trillion “black hole” in funding to cover the generous pensions of Britain’s army of public sector workers, business chiefs warn today.

Sterling falls amid fears over hung Parliament
Sterling fell against the dollar and the euro today as mixed opinion polls heightened fears over a hung Parliament after Gordon Brown called a general election for May 6.

Analysts warned that the pound could come under further pressure over the next month unless polls started to show a clear winner.

Labour’s Climate Change Act: A Conspiracy to Defraud
The revelation that the Government’s Climate Change Act will cost the taxpayer up to £18.3 billion per year between now and 2050, together with its sanitising “enquiry” into the Climate Studies Unit (CSU) scandal, proves that it is working hand-in-glove with the United Nations (UN) towards their “global governance” objectives.

Westminster bargaining to pass DNA Bill begins
Proposals to store the DNA profiles of innocent people for six years will be the focus of bargaining at Westminster as ministers try to pass key legislation before Parliament is dissolved.

Obama excludes Iran in ban on US nuke strikes
US President Barack Obama plans to release a review of the US nuclear arms strategy that purportedly restricts the use of its nuclear arms against most non-atomic states except Iran and North Korea.

Disabled mother forced to sell home to pay compensation after mobility scooter injures supermarket worker's knee
A disabled mother whose mobility scooter injured the knee of a supermarket worker has been forced to sell her house after she was sued for damages

Pressure mounts on Digital Economy Bill
Protests against the Digital Economy Bill have escalated as the controversial Bill is about to receive its second reading at the House of Commons

General election 2010: Facebook and Twitter to have unprecedented impact
Facebook, Twitter and other social media will have an unprecedented impact on the general election campaign.

Digital Bill to strip Britons of their rights
Britain is hoping to put itself at the forefront of the fight against Internet piracy with the new Digital Economy Bill, to be debated in parliament later on Tuesday.

The bill will give authorities the power to block pirate websites and cut off people from the Internet if caught file sharing.

But protesters claim the measures are too extreme and threaten the very future of the web.

UK Conservatives may reopen probe into Iraq war whistleblower’s death
The death of a whistle-blower who said the UK government had "sexed up" a dossier on Saddam Hussein's military capabilities in order to sell the Iraq war has been one of the most intriguing and confusing elements of the war's history

Santelli: $4 Gas, $150 Oil Coming This Summer
CNBC CME floor reporter explains investors could flee equity markets for commodities, including energy and put a hurt on consumers.

CNN Weather Guy Chad Myers Accuses Climate Scientists Of Corruption
CNN meteorologist Chad Myers accuses climate scientists of corruption, saying that because they “work for the government,” they might lose their jobs if they didn’t say man-made global warming was real.

Is Gordon Brown Proposing To Print Climate Money?
Monday, 05 April 2010 10:07 Ethiopian Journal — Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi says the high level Advisory Group on Climate Change Financing has identified various financial sources to help developing countries combat climate change and set directives for further activities.

Meles and British Prime Minister Gordon Brown co-chaired the first meeting of the group held in London last week.

Meles told the Ethiopian Radio and Television Agency that the meeting assessed ways of getting financial sources through air and marine transport and the right of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to print money and implementation of new taxes, among others.

More “hiding the decline”
Re-reading Climategate and AR4 Review Comments, I noticed an interesting discussion about handling the Law Dome O18 record – a series used in Mann and Jones (2003) and Jones and Mann (2004) with a very elevated MWP

Revealed: Hospital has staff from 70 countries as nurses who don't even understand 'nil by mouth' forced to take English lessons
An NHS hospital has staff from a staggering 70 countries on its payroll.

The huge number of overseas nurses, cleaners and porters has forced health chiefs to send them on ten-week English courses because many do not understand basic medical phrases.

Among the terms some workers from countries such as Burma, the Philippines and Poland can't follow are 'nil by mouth', 'doing the rounds' and 'bleeping a doctor'

Wounded paratrooper told he may lose £25k compensation after he was pictured holding Carling Cup at Wembley
Paralysed in an attack in Afghanistan, Private Dave Tatlock was told he would never walk again.
But the 20-year-old drew on all his battlefield courage to prove the doctors wrong, making slow but steady progress over two difficult years with the aid of a stick.
In a salute to his bravery, he was invited to be a guest of honour when his beloved Manchester United played Aston Villa in the Carling Cup final at Wembley in February. He even carried the trophy on to the pitch.

(H/T Mr Waring for last two items)

Quentin Davies' shoe-in....Nick Boles
Boles was a scholar at Winchester College before studying PPE at Magdalen College, Oxford, then winning a Kennedy Scholarship to study for a Master's in Public Policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

In 1995, he founded a small DIY supply small business—Longwall Holdings Limited—of which he is non-executive chairman, having served as the chief executive until 2000.[1] In 1998, he was elected to Westminster City Council for the West End ward comprising Mayfair and Soho. He was chairman of the Housing Committee from 1999 to 2001, before stepping down in 2002. During much of this time, Boles flatshared with fellow Conservative activists, Michael Gove and Ivan Massow. He and Gove, along with fellow Westminster Conservatives Ed Vaizey, David Cameron, George Osborne and Rachel Whetstone, are sometimes referred to as the 'Notting Hill Set' an influential group of relatively young Conservatives.[2] He founded the think tank Policy Exchange in 2002 and served as the Director until leaving the organisation in 2007 to avoid a potential conflict of interest. During his tenure Policy Exchange became one of the most influential think tanks in the country, especially after David Cameron was elected Conservative Party leader in 2005.[3]

Keiser Report №31: Markets! Finance! Scandal!

This time Max Keiser and co-host, Stacy Herbert, look at the scandals of Tony "No Blood for Oil" Blair lying about selling the UK gold supply on "technical advice of the Bank of England;" a millionaire tramp in Sweden and a casino that refuses to pay in America; and, finally, the Irish 'Bad Bank' and the 'Celtic Chernobyl.'

Mass Depopulation, Genocide, WW3? Part 1- The link to the New World Order
UK, April 2, 2010 Palestine Telegraph - This heading may appear alarming to some people but is there a hidden master plan? Is it possible that some aspects of this has already started and if so how and who is involved. We hear so many times of the so called “New World Order and the “Illuminati” but does it actually exist? What ever you want to call this elite organisation one can say with some certainty that it does certainly exist. I also find it incredible that this relatively small group can change the course of history and we the millions may have no power to stop it.

So where does this start and who is involved?

Deflation on the prowl as Bernanke shuts down his printing press
The most audacious monetary experiment in modern history ended on April Fools' Day. America must walk without crutches, on gangrenous legs.

Public sector pension black hole to cost taxpayers an extra £330 a year
Workers will have to pay an extra £330 a year each in tax to help plug the growing black hole in the cost of public sector pensions, business leaders warned last night

Eleven rapists and hundreds of other sex offenders 'let off with cautions'
Eleven rapists and hundreds of other self-confessed sex offenders have been let off with cautions over the past five years in one police force area alone, figures show.

(but you'll get a £1000 fine and a tag for selling a goldfish to a minor)

Fiddling those smoking figures again
Anti-smoking campaigners' use of statistics has become ever wilder

How to Survive The Three Most Imminent Disasters of 2010-2012
Needless to say, I'm delighted to see my book surge to #2!

But what pleases me even more is the fact that more investors are finally learning how to take urgently-needed steps to prepare for THREE major disasters — and profit opportunities — dead ahead

Banks to face 'excess profits tax' to help governments around the world raise cash
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is considering plans for an 'excess profits tax' on banks worldwide to raise cash in the wake of the financial crisis, it was reported today.

The IMF is expected to recommend the tax as a means of raising significant sums of money from the banking sector without dramatically affecting the work of the financial system.

It will sit alongside a global levy on bank balance sheets as the grip tightens on the sector following the mammoth bail-outs seen during the meltdown

Good riddance to this rotten Parliament
There will be no weeping, wailing or gnashing of teeth when this Parliament finally croaks its last. Nor will there be any mourners around its death-bed.
Rarely - if ever before - in this nation's history has a Parliament earned so much contempt and scorn from the people it is supposed to represent.
I have been reporting at Westminster for just a few months short of half a century and never, during that time, has there been such a backlash of fury from the British voting public.

Bio Marine scientists: ocean acidification most dangerous affect of global warming
Ocean acidification is described as the ongoing decrease in the pH or salinity of the Earth's oceans caused by the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere

HAWKINS: Global warming is back
After two years of rau-cous meetings at great ho-tels and re-sorts around the world, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) failed to deliver a treaty in Copenhagen in December. The clash of national interests over who would be required to cripple their economies to "save the planet" from the chimera of global warming proved insurmountable. The flawed process should have ended, but UNFCCC is pressing on. Talks will open again in Bonn on Friday, to be followed by several more negotiating junkets before a grand sequel to Copenhagen is held next December in Cancun, Mexico.

Last Stand Against UK Digital Economy Bill and Dangerous Internet Restrictions
Today, adverts in the Guardian and Times will call on Government MPs to make sure the Digital Economy Bill (DEB) receives full debate, rather than being rushed through ‘wash-up’. DEB, which is designed to tackle online copyright infringement, could spell the end of public / open Wi-Fi Hotspots, force legitimate websites to close (potentially this might even affect Google and YouTube) and could result in innocent broadband ISP users being disconnected from the internet.

Food Crisis Looming Around the Corner
An aggressive push in agriculture is essential

In a report prepared for the first-ever meeting of the Global Conference on Agricultural Research for Development (GCARD), researchers paint a bleak picture of the future. They say that, unless immediate action is taken on increasing the world's food supply, we could soon be faced with a crisis unlike any other we ever witnessed. The largest amount of work needs to be placed in poorer nations, which have been kept subservient for centuries, but which now need to become able to feed themselves. Most of these areas do not contribute to the global food supply in a noteworthy proportion.

Labour's blown £1.5 Billion on advice
MINISTERS have blown a huge £1.5BILLION of taxpayers' money on ADVICE over the past five years.

We're part of the Union, but our politics are very different

Commentary from John Curtis, Professor of Politics, Strathclyde University

Managers in the NHS' should be paid more'

NHS managers in Scotland should start on higher salaries and progress up the pay scales more swiftly, according to an official report.

CCTV cameras worn by police spot 500 incident in trial use

UK house prices face prolonged bear market
The housing market may now be trapped in a long-term bear market and may not bounce back to the peaks it reached in 2007 for generations, a leading economic consultancy has warned.

CBI issues 100-day challenge on public sector pensions
The CBI has issued a warning to the next government: reform public sector pensions or watch a £1,000 billion taxpayer liability spiral out of control.

Millions prepare to count the cost of new tax regime
People returning to work after Easter face a series of tax bombshells set to detonate today as the Chancellor seeks to pay down public debt.

Virtually all of the new charges, such as the 50p rate of income tax and the freezing of tax thresholds, have been planned for some time — but this will not do much to ease the pain as taxpayers see nearly £20 billion disappear from their pockets over the next couple of years.

Here Comes The Pound Roller Coaster Now That U.K. Election Day Has Been Named
The U.K. just entered its election season and the pound could be rocked by further poll anxiety as the May date comes closer.

13 years on, new Labour has come full circle
It’s just like the 1997 election. The only tactic the governing party has left is to sow the seeds of fear

THE price of petrol reached its highest ever level over the Easter weekend, with rocketing oil costs set to bring even more misery to motorists.

More than 50 suspected war criminals living in Britain, says Aegis Trust
More than 50 suspected war criminals are living freely in Britain after Scotland Yard was unable to prosecute them.

Member of Hollie’s Army targets Malcolm Chisholm SMP
Thanks to the very fine efforts of Mark Welsh (an active member), Hollie’s supporters have now been able (via Mark) to not only air their concerns and views but also had the opportunity to hand over a brief to Malcolm Chisholm SMP the member for Edinburgh North and Leith.

Impending GMO Contamination of the Food Chain
Farmers and Consumers Demand Prohibition of Genetically Engineered Alfalfa

“The US economy will not recover for at least another decade” – Engdahl
American bankers see themselves as the gods of money, a class above mere mortals, and they can do what they wish, said renowned economic researcher and historian William Engdahl in an interview with RT.

National debt seen heading for crisis level
Health care may have been the last big bang of the Obama presidency.

With ferocious speed, the financial crisis, recession and efforts to combat the recession have swung the U.S. debt from worrisome to ruinous, promising to handcuff the administration.

A new charity that suits female job-hunters

A charity is being set up to give unemployed women in the west of Scotland a smart start to a new career.

CBI: Final salary pensions in public sector must end

Soldier, 26, dies after fall from rickshaw

The use of rickshaws in Edinburgh is expected to be reviewed after a man died falling from one.

Minister slated for attempting to sell independence during Scotland week

Angry purists lost for words as new rules allow proper nouns in Scrabble

Disclaimer - The posting of stories, commentaries, reports, documents and links (embedded or otherwise) on this site does not in any way, shape or form, implied or otherwise, necessarily express or suggest endorsement or support of any of such posted material or parts therein.

The myriad of facts, conjecture, perspectives, viewpoints, opinions, analyses, and information in the articles, stories and commentaries posted on this site range from cutting edge hard news and comment to extreme and unusual perspectives. We choose not to sweep uncomfortable material under the rug - where it can grow and fester. We choose not to censor skewed logic and uncomfortable rhetoric. These things reflect the world as it now is - for better and worse. We present multiple facts, perspectives, viewpoints, opinions, analyses, and information.

Journalism is (or used to be) the profession of gathering and presenting a broad panorama of news about the events of our times and presenting it to readers for their own consideration. We believe in the intelligence, judgment and wisdom of our readers to discern for themselves among the data which appears on this site that which is valid and worthy...or otherwise.

  © Blogger template 'Perfection' by Ourblogtemplates.com 2008

Back to TOP